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Издания / Российская археология / Содержание номеров 2010 г. / № 4 (English)


Number 4, 2010

The Rudnaya Neolithic culture in Primorye: issues of periodization and chronology
Batarshev S.V., Moreva O.L., Kuzmin Y.V.

Chronological correlation of the Eneolithic cultures in the Volga-Urals region in the light of radiocarbon dating
Morgunova N.L., Vybornov A.A., Kovalyukh N.N., Skripkin V.V.

Krasnoozerki culture in the Middle Irtysh region: dynamics of the evolution
Sherstobitova O.S.

Anthropomorphic gravestones in the funeral practice of Greeks and barbarians, 7th – 2nd cc. BC
Stoyanov R.V.

Cups by Tleson Painter from the excavations in the North Pontic region, State Hermitage Museum collection
Petrakova A.E.

Sources of the economic crisis of the 3d c. BC
Tereschenko A.E.

The evolution of Crimean two-plate fibulae in the 5th – 7th. cc. AD
Furasyev A.G.

The early medieval hoard from Kurilovka
Rodinkova V.E.

A new type of commemorative sites of the Turkic-speaking population in South Siberia (concerning the expansion and early history of the Chiks)
Kyzlasov I.L.


About the ways of study of Animal Style (concerning the issue of method and ethics in the latest works on the art of the Sarmatian period)
Korolkova E.F.


Eneolithic “ironing” scepter from the Stavropol region
Korenevsky S.N., Kalmykov A.A.

Bronze Age cult site at Lake Shaitanskoye near Ekaterinburg (based on the materials of the 2008 excavations)
Korochkova O.N., Stefanov V.I.   

“Bakur the Alan” from Ancient Iberia

Balakhvantsev A.S., Nikolaishvili V.V.


History of Science

V.G. Druzhinin’s Recollections as a source for the history of the Imperial Archaeological Commission
Gaidukov P.G.

A.D. Chertkov and his contribution to Russian numismatics and archaeology
Frolova M.M.

The Soviet-Afghani archaeological expedition: two jubilees
Koshelenko G.A., Munchaev R.M., Gaibov V.A.

Critics and Bibliography

Archaeology: Manual /Ed. by V.L. Yanin, Academician of the RAS. Moscow, 2006
Sher Ya.A.

Vybornov A.A. The Neolithic of the Volga-Kama region. Samara, 2008 
Viskalin A.V.

G.G. Korol’. The art of medieval Eurasian nomads. Moscow; Kemerovo, 2008
Ermolenko L.N., Sovetova O.S. 

Discovering and interpreting the past of Southeast Asia
Zakharov A.O.


International symposium, Pottery, People and Places. Sandberg, 2008
Zhuravlev D.V.

IV International archaeological conference, Cultures of the Eurasian steppes in the Second Half of the 1st Millennium AD”
Stashenkov D.A.

To the 70th anniversary of A.Z. Vinnikov
Pryakhin A.D.

In memory of Natalia L’vovna Chlenova
Kuzminykh S.V., Korenyako V.A.

In memory of Nikolai Dmitrievich Praslov
Sinitsyn A.A.



The Rudnaya Neolithic culture in Primorye: issues of periodization and chronology
S.V. Batarshev, O.L. Moreva, Y.V. Kuzmin

Key words: Neolithic studies, southern Far East, culture of the stamped pottery: Rudnaya, Bajsman, Mariin, Malyshevo.
The article considers the important problem of Neolithic studies in the Primorye region of the Russian Far East, the periodization and chronology of the Rudnaya (Tetukhe) cultural complex. Analysis of all the materials from the Rudnaya culture sites (pottery, stone artifacts and dwellings) reveals a sub-division within the complex. Two chronological variants can be identified: 1) early Rudnaya stage (6700-6100 cal BC) and 2) late Sergeevka stage (6200-4600 cal BC).

Chronological correlation of the Eneolithic cultures in the Volga-Urals region in the light of radiocarbon dating
N.L. Morgunova, A.A. Vybornov, N.N. Kovalyukh, V.V. Skripkin

Key words: Eneolithic cultures, absolute chronology of the Volga-Urals interstream area, steppe, forest-steppe, Caspian culture, Samara culture, Khvalynsk culture, Tok, Turganik and Repino types.
The authors used radiocarbon dating of pottery from Eneolithic cultures in the Volga-Urals interstream area. The about 50 dates that were obtained were then compared with 14C dates obtained from other material found at sites belonging to the Samara, Caspian and Khvalynsk cultures, and also to cultures of the steppe zone of Eastern Europe. The authors have arrived at the conclusion that the process of Eneolithization and transition to the Bronze Age in the Volga and Urals regions took a rather long period of time, from the second half of the 6th millennium BC till the end of the 5th millennium BC (calibrated). The radiocarbon dates for the early Eneolithic materials (of the Caspian and S’yezhinsky types) synchronize with late Neolithic sites, which fact allows to consider both within the limits of the neo-Eneolithic stage, the chronological boundaries whereof are within 5400 to 4800 BC. The following Eneolithic stage is connected with the development (possibly with the arrival) of the Khvalynsk culture, and also with the emergence of sites of the Ivanovskaya, Tok, Altata and other types, which followed the local traditions of cultural development. The chronological boundaries of the period are determined as 5000 to 4300 BC. Radiocarbon dating of pottery of the Turganik and Repino types determined the time of their existence as the 4th millennium BC.

Krasnoozerki culture in the Middle Irtysh region: dynamics of the evolution
O.S. Sherstobitova

Key words: pottery assemblage, Middle Irtysh, late Bronze Age, ornamental schemes, Krasnoozerki culture
The article is based on the analysis of a specific pottery assemblage of the Krasnoozerki culture. The pottery comes from settlements in the pre-taiga zone of the Middle Irtysh. Analysis of the pottery showed that its characteristics do not correspond to either the early Khutor-Bor or the late Inberen’ stage of Krasnoozerki culture, and that the pottery thus belongs to a transitional type. The development of the transitional type of Krasnoozerki ware followed two main directions: 1 - modifying Khutor-Bor elements while keeping the Khutor-Bor ornamental schemes; 2 – including the autochthonous Late Bronze elements into the evolving Krasnoozerki ornamental canon. Using the characteristics of the transitional Krasnoozerki ware, the author studies the mechanisms and conditions of the transformation of Krasnoozerki antiquities from one stage to another. The final evolution of the Inberen’ ornamental canon took place in the forest-steppe, whereas the pre-taiga zone played the role of a certain “buffer area” (territorially and chronologically). In the author’s opinion it is the Inberen’ stage that reflects in full the specific characteristics of the archaeological culture. Hence the Krasnoozerki culture as such can be correlated with the late Inberen’ stage, whereas the Khutor-Bor stage and the transitional group which is the subject of the present article show the evolution of the original Krasnoozerki ornamentation in the evolving culture.

Anthropomorphic gravestones in the funeral practice of Greeks and barbarians, 7th – 2nd cc. BC
R.V. Stoyanov

Key words: Middle East, Central Anatolia, gravestones, anthropomorphic stelae and reliefs, Greek necropolises of the North Pontic region.
Anthropomorphic stelae and reliefs are a specific group of funeral monuments, schematic images of a human figure or full-face busts with flat face area. We can identify at least two regions where the tradition of anthropomorphic gravestones could have originated, and that is the Middle East and Central Anatolia. The differences in the shape and semantics of the monuments that can be observed from the 7th to the 2nd cc. in the two regions indicate that the sculpture of this type was evolving independently in each of the regions. Anthropomorphic sculptures from Phoenicia, Palestine and Lebanon are stelae with relief or incised images of heads, shoulder-length images or schematic anthropomorphic figures of deities (Fig. 6, 3). Sites of this type in North Africa and Sicily are connected with the Phoenician colonization. The monuments from South Italian necropolises, hermae with a rounded head in the upper part, could also have their origin in the Punic religion that underwent transformation in the local milieu (Figs, 4; 6; 1 – 2). The monuments from Central Anatolia are sculptured stelae and relief images (busts and hermae) (Fig. 7). They were connected with the Phrygian cult of the goddess Matar. In its Hellenized form the cult became popular in the Greek centers of the region, from which it found its way to other areas of the ancient world. The issue of the origin of the anthropomorphic gravestones in Greek necropolises of the North Pontic region (Figs. 1 – 3) remains a complex one. It appears that in our search for the origins of the tradition we should look to the milieu of Greek colonists. It is possible that the iconographic type of anthropomorph found its way to the North Pontic region with the people from other regions of the ancient world, possibly from Anatolia, who arrived together with the Greek colonists.

Cups by Tleson Painter in the State Hermitage museum
A.E. Petrakova

Key words: the Tleson Painter, Little-Masters cups, attribution of the Attic pottery, Beazly’s, method, State hermitage museum, Northern Black Sea.
The State hermitage museum owns over 350 cups and fragments of Little-Masters cups of all the existing types (without counting the floral band-cups. Twelve of them, including one whole lip-cup, two fragments of lip-cups and nine fragments of band-cups can be attributed to the Tleson Painter, one of the most typical and prolific of the Little-Masters. Two fragments of the lip-cup with palmettes and inscriptions can be dated c. 550 BC, early phase of the painter, while the whole lip-cup of Beazly’s type LI with siren inside can be dated to the middle phase of the painter in Fellmann’s chronology. Two fragments of band-cups with typical for the painter description of fighting roosters, two fragments of band-cups with sirens, four fragments of band-cups with palmettes and one item with inscriptions can be dated also as the works of the Tleson Painter of the middle phase, 550-530 BC. The whole cup and seven fragments were found on Berezan island, three fragments in Nymphaion and one in Olbia. All together these fragments form about 11% of the whole quantity of the cups by the Tleson painter the provenance of which we can define. This fact makes Northern Black Sea the second main direction of export of the cups by this painter, setting it after Italy and Sicily (about 35%).

Sources of the economic crisis of the 3d c. BC
A.E. Tereschenko

Key words: Bosporan kingdom, “the coin crisis” of the 3rd c., copper coinage, grain trade, Greater Scythia.
The author analyzes the possible reasons for the complex period of Bosporan history that Russian historiography erroneously named “the coin crisis”. The phenomenon should actually be determined as a crisis in the state revenues, which was brought about by the decrease in grain trade between the Bosporan kingdom and the Greek Mediterranean region. The reason was the destabilization in the lands of Greater Scythia from where most of the tradable grain came. The downfall of Greater Scythia began in the last quarter of the 4th c. BC when Sarmatian tribes appeared on that territory. In numismatics, the beginning of the process was marked by a sharp increase in the amount of copper coinage. That applies to the series which includes two types of coins: “bearded satyr head, protoma of eagle-headed griffin right, sturgeon below, Π-Α-Ν left” and “beardless satyr head, protoma of Pegasus right, Π-Α-Ν right”.

The evolution of Crimean two-plate fibulae in the 5th – 7th. cc. AD
A.G. Furasyev

Key words: early medieval Crimea, the Goths, female dress, jewelry, relative chronology.
On the basis of analysis of the morphological and structural characteristics of the two-plate fibulae that are found in the Crimea the author details the current general typological scheme for the items (Fig. 6): variant 1A – fibulae with medium-sized plates, whole; variant 1B – large fibulae with plates, composite; variant 2A – small fibulae with protrusions at the head and rhombic foot; variant 2B – large fibulae with protrusions at the head and frame on the reverse side; variant 3 – small fibulae with triangular foot. The author regards as erroneous the hypothesis that these varieties of fibulae followed a unified line of evolution from variant 1 to variant 3. Fibulae of variants 1 and 2 existed synchronously, and their origin is connected with two different prototypes from the Great Migration period. Three general tendencies in the evolution of Crimean two-plate fibulae have been identified for the first time. All the three tendencies manifested themselves in the evolution of variant 1 and variant 2 items throughout the 6th – beginning of the 7th cc. The first tendency is larger size, the more recent items are longer than the earlier ones. Second, the first tendency brought about the appearance and gradual strengthening of the reinforcing frame on the reverse side of the fibulae. Third, the quality of the metal became poorer, i.e. the silver content in the alloy went down from 97% which is the maximum content in the earlier fibulae to 50% and less in the more recent versions. 

The early medieval hoard from Kurilovka
V.E. Rodinkova

Key words: early Middle Ages, male and female ornaments.
The article publishes the hoard that was found in October 2007 near the village of Kurilovka in Kursk oblast’. The hoard is stored in the Kurchatovskiy state regional museum. The assemblage belongs to the circle of Dnieper early medieval hoards, or “antiquities of the Antae” group I. The items existed in the Middle Dnieper region and the Dnieper left bank starting from the end of the 6th/turn of the 6th-7th cc. to the middle/third quarter of the 7th c. The hoard comprises 119 whole and fragmented metal items and 33 glass and amber beads. They are divided into elements of woman’s attire (fibulae, temple rings, bracelets, umbo- and trapeze-shaped pendants, bells, spiral and plain metal tubes, chains, beads, etc.) (Figs. 1-3; 4, 1-30; 5, 1-12, 16-31), elements of man’s attire (buckles, belt plates, strap terminals, etc.) (Fig. 6) and metal ingots (Fig. 5, 13, 14). The woman’s items are represented by local Dnieper forms, part of which are specific local variants and allow to include the Kurilovka hoard, together with the Gaponovo and new Sudzha hoards into the group of assemblages from the Sudzha microgerion in the Seim-Psyol interfluve area. The details of the man’s belt assemblages reflect the mainly southward focus in the external relations of the population. The complex is of a dual character. On the one hand, it includes sets of personal ornaments. On the other hand, the unfinished items and the ingots indicate a craftsman. We may assume that the Kurilovka hoard was deposited by a jeweler who decided to hide both his own unfinished goods and the decorations which belonged to his family.

A new type of commemorative sites of the Turkic-speaking population in South Siberia (concerning the expansion and early history of the Chiks)
I.L. Kyzlasov

Key words: South Siberia, Tuva, Altai, early Middle Ages, Yenisei runic script, commemorative stelae of the Turkic-speaking population, Chik people.
In studies of the early medieval Yenisei runic script with its original alphabet we encounter inscriptions that were left by representatives of different educational centers in South Siberia. To the archaeologist, epigraphic features are not the only means to distinguish the ethnic and cultural background of the epitaphs. The distinction is especially evident in the cases when the commemorative stelae belong to cult sites of different types and with different rites. The article identifies a new type of commemorative site in Tuva and the Altai, small kurgans with stone stelae to the west or northwest (fig. 6). Three of them have Yenisei inscriptions (E 57, E 58 and E 60) (fig. 1, 2, 4, 5) which prove beyond doubt that it was a Turkic-speaking population that left the sites in question. Excavations reveal only the remains of pits which used to hold poles (fig. 1-3, 7). Kurgans without stelae have the same structure. The topography of the sites that were identified (fig. 8) allows connecting them with the medieval Chik people, whose presence in Eastern Altai is confirmed also by the characteristic personal and family tamgas carved in the rock above the estuary of the river Chuya. In South Siberia this type of site dates back to the turn of the eras. 

Eneolithic “ironing” scepter from the Stavropol region
S.N. Korenevsky, A.A. Kalmykov

Key words: Eneolithic, “ironing” scepter, Stavropol region.
The article publishes an “ironing” scepter which was found by chance in the Stavropol region. The artifact has the features of zoomorphic and abstract Neolithic scepters. It is dated within the framework of the general chronology of stone Eneolithic scepters to Tripolye BI-BIBII time. The specific features of the item indicate that the flat ventral side could have been used for longitudinal motions on a surface. It could even have been inserted into a handle like other scepters. The find adds detail to the general typology of Eneolithic stone scepters.

Bronze Age cult site at Lake Shaitanskoye near Ekaterinburg (based on the materials of the 2008 excavations)
O.N. Korochkova, V.I. Stefanov

Key words: cult site, Bronze Age, Ural region.
The article publishes the results of the recent excavations at the site of Shaitanskoye Ozero II in the Kirovgrad region of Svardlovsk oblast’. Koptyakovo-type pottery, stone artifacts, and a fragment of a crucible holding a drop of copper have been found in the crevices and lows between boulders, at the level of the ancient surface. Prestigious items, i.e. metal artifacts and weapons (a spearhead, a socketed chisel, daggers, kelts and knives), stone arrowheads and workpieces for them have been found buried in the soil. The small hollows that contained the artifacts are located in the spaces that hold no large stones; after the hollow had been dug, the bronze and copper items were deposited there, sometimes in a vertical position. Most of the hollows contained two buried items, findings of single or several items are less frequent. The functioning of the site was connected with the cult practices of the Koptyakovo culture population (first half of the 2nd millennium BC) in the mountain and forest Trans-Urals, primarily of the metal-makers and smiths who inherited the traditions of Seima-Turbino metalworking on the other hand and the craftsmen of the Petrovka-Alakul nucleus on the other hand.

“Alan Bakur” from Ancient Iberia
A.S. Balakhvantsev, V.V. Nikolaishvili

Key words: Georgian archaeology, ancient Iberia, intaglio.
In the course of the 1974 excavations at the Zhinvali cemetery (Dusheti region of the GSSR), burial No. 18 yielded an iron ring inset with a Roman carnelian intaglio of the 1st - 2nd cc. AD. It bears the inscription ΒΑΚΟΥΡ ΑΛΑΝΑ, which was made in a more recent time when the artifact was already in Iberia. Paleographic data indicates that the Bakur inscription dates to the end of the 2nd – first quarter of the 3d cc. AD. Even though the letters are Greek, the language is not, since in that case the inscription would have read ΠΑΚΟΡΟΣ ΑΛΑΝΟΣ. The language is hence Alanian, and the artifact is the earliest specimen of Alanian writing that we have. On the one hand the fact gives us a deeper comprehension of the extent to which Hellenic culture and education were present in Iberian society, and on the other hand is another testimony of the important role that ancient Iberia played in the spreading of Classical culture to neighboring territories.




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Научный семинар «Бронзовый век Циркумпонтийского региона: археологические материалы и исторические интерпретации», 6 июня 2019 г., Институт археологии РАН



Семинар "ПетроглифовЕдение, петроглифовИдение и прочие введения в новейшую историю изучения наскального искусства России", 29 мая 2019 г., Институт археологии РАН


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